Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of antibody variable region has emerged as a powerful tool in systems immunology by providing qualitative and quantitative molecular measures on antibody polyclonal composition [1-3]. Reproducible and robust information on antibody repertoires is invaluable for basic and applied immunology studies. However, major computational challenges exist when analyzing antibody sequences. For example, error handling, computing somatic hypermutation levels, and V(D)J family assignments.

What is ASAP?

ASAP webserver is user-friendly, free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. ASAP facilitates bioinformatics analyses on NGS antibody V gene data. One of the strengths of ASAP is that it allows analyzing experimental replicates, which is valuable for increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Another major component is to upload the NGS data as obtained from the sequencing machine without any need for preprocessing. ASAP is applicable for researchers that are interested to address basic questions related to B cell development and differentiation as well as applied researchers.


Paired-end (R1 and R2) from one or more datasets (up to three replicates) in Fastq format. These datasets can be derived from high throughput sequencing of human or murine antibody variable regions. Default parameters are pre-defined thus enabling the usage by non-expert users. However, advanced users can further select parameters to customize their analysis.

Output and methodology

By far the highest diversity in antibodies occurs within the CDR3 region, which is overwhelmingly responsible for antigen recognition [4,5]. The CDR3 is thus considered as a unique identifier of antibody clones. Our methodology is divided into individual and joint parts. The individual part applies standard approaches of antibody variable region sequences filtration and annotation using germline sequences from the international immunogenetics information system (IMGT) [6]. The ASAP webserver uses MiXCR [7] for the initial paired-end assembly and germline annotation and ASAP further filters and preforms statistical calculations of somatic hypermutation rates, CDR3 lengths distribution, somatic hyphermutation, V(D)J family assignments and V(D)J recombination linkage.

In the joint part of the ASAP webserver, additional information is obtained by analyzing the commonalities and differences between multiple experimental repeats. ASAP examines the variable region sequences and their frequency in each replicate to determine which sequences are less likely to be a result of a sample preparation derived and/or sequencing errors. ASAP provides information regarding the intersection of data between replicates and the correlation between samples. It also consolidates a final database (FASTA format) of all sequences passing the inclusion criteria. The final file includes also meta-data regarding the germline family usage and the prevalence of the sequences in all replicates.
All these analyses are presented graphically, as can be demonstrated in our gallery section.


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